84 (2), 145-148. http://www.fealq.org.br/revista_agricultura.asp, Barševskis A, 2009. The common names 'ladybird', 'ladybug' and 'ladybeetle' refer to members of the Coccinellidae that have brightly coloured elytra and are conspicuous. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); eggs are oval and ca.1.2 mm long. Perhaps most notable is its polyphagous nature. Indeed, reports of H. axyridis larvae and adults feeding on the immature stages of other aphidophagous insects are common (Koch, 2003). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(4):803-810. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0010, Brown MW, Miller SS, 1998. H. axyridis can now be found in all USA states except for Montana, Wyoming and parts of the south-western USA; it is also established in South America (de Almeida and da Silva, 2002) and South Africa (Stals and Prinsloo, 2007). In-field monitoring of beneficial insect populations in transgenic corn expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. Intraguild predation by Harmonia axyridis: effects on native enemies and aphid suppression. Image of axyridis, beetle, europe - 189023446 This variation has been shown to have a genetic basis, controlled by a multi-allelic gene, with melanic forms generally being genetically dominant to non-melanic forms (Hosino, 1933, 1936; Tan and Li, 1934; Komai, 1956; Sasaji, 1971). Colour pattern variation in the founding population of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, in Britain. The occurrence of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Canada. European Journal of Entomology [Proceedings of the International Symposium "Ecology of Aphidophaga 10", held in September 2007 in Athens, Greece. Original citation: Ben Halima Kamel et al. Het veelkleurig Aziatisch lieveheersbeestje (Harmonia axyridis) is een kever uit de familie lieveheersbeestjes (Coccinellidae).. Het insect werd als biologische bestrijding van bladluizen ingevoerd in België. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); adults of f. succinea, mating. Markó V, Pozsgai G, 2009. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); adult, attacked by Hesperomyces virescens, a Laboulbeniales parasitic fungi. The first state record for the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), from Montana. Insect Gallery., http://kohiyama.wem.sfc.keio.ac.jp/eng/insect_e/adventure/011.html. Hand-harvesting may be more favourable than mechanical harvesting because aggregations of beetles in grape clusters can be monitored during harvesting and infested grapes can be discarded. Insect biological control and non-target effects: a European perspective. In: Journal of Insect Science, 3 32. Harmonia axyridis is holometabolous, progressing from egg through four larval instars, to pupa and then adult. Taxonomy of Coccinellids. Multicolored Asian lady beetle (Harmonia axyridis) sensitivity. 44 (5), 239-242. Occurrence of Harmonia axyridis in Tunisia. Determination of hibernation site in the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Some people have reported allergic reactions to H. axyridis (Goetz, 2008) and others have complained of experiencing bites (Koch, 2003). Although these larvae eclose when aphid populations have declined to very low levels, their wide dietary range (including intra-guild predation) is likely to increase the survival of these late-season larvae. The pupal colour of H. axyridis ranges from almost completely orange to almost completely black, depending on temperature; the lower the temperature experienced by a final-instar larva, the darker the pupa that is produced. The eggs are pale-yellow when first laid, but progressively turn a darker yellow. (2008a) also mention that there were releases of H. axyridis in Portugal, Canary islands, Ukraine and Belarus (and in Hawaii, according to Poutsma et al. National Biological Information Infrastructure, http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=668&fr=1&sts=, Nedved O, Háva J, 2016. Seasonal phenotypic plasticity: wild ladybirds are darker at cold temperatures. Field observations on Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Oregon. Ecology of Coccinellidae. Ecology of Coccinellidae. Zelf is hij daarvoor immuun, maar voor het zevenstippelig lieveheersbeestje zijn de schimmels dodelijk.. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. It has many attributes that contribute to its economic viability as a biological control agent. > 10°C, Cold average temp. The elytra and pronotum colour and pattern of H. axyridis adults are highly polymorphic. Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in apple orchards of eastern West Virginia and the impact of invasion by Harmonia axyridis. The closely related species, Harmonia quadripunctata, has a chromosome number of 7 (2n =14). Entomological Science, 3(3):465-469, Tan C-C, Li J-C, 1934. H. axyridis, a species of Asian origin, has been used as a biological control agent against aphids worldwide. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, 29(2):123-129. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ocean/aap/2008/00000029/00000002/art00005, Gordon RD, 1985. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 76(3):177-182, Roy HE, Adriaens T, Isaac NJB, Kenis M, Onkelinx T, San Martin G, Brown PMJ, Hautier L, Poland R, Roy DB, Comont R, Eschen R, Frost R, Zindel R, Vlaenderen Jvan, Nedved O, Ravn HP, Grégoire J, Biseau JCde, Maes D, 2012. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 109:205, Majerus M, Kearns P, 1989. 46 (4), 592-596. http://www.ilib.cn/P-kczs.html, Majerus MEN, 2004. 295-309. H. axyridis has a long history of introductions as a biological control agent of coccids and aphids around the world. ©Gilles San Martin, Namur, Belgium/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0. Investigation on the fluctuations of dominant natural enemy populations in different cotton habitats and integrated application with biological agents to control cotton pests. Journal of Entomological Science, 32(3):332-342, Burbank DH, Pregitzer KS, Gross KL, 1992. Global Invasive Species Database: Harmonia axyridis. Intra- and inter-specific predation of lady beetles in spring alfalfa fields. Community structure of arthropods in transgenic cotton fields and their seasonal dynamics. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 19(3):941-944, Alyokhin A, Sewell G, 2004. It is known to have been introduced (both intentionally and unintentionally) to Europe, North America, South America, the Middle East and South Africa (Stals and Prinsloo, 2007; Brown et al., 2008a). In: Cornell Cooperative Extension - Insect Diagnostic Laboratory fact sheets, http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/Extension/DiagnosticLab/IDLFS, Koch R L, Venette R C, Hutchison W D, 2006. most pyrethroids, have a pre-harvest interval of several weeks whereas, to be efficient, treatments should be applied within a week before harvest (Galvan et al., 2006). H. axyridis are able to travel 18 km in a “typical” high-altitude flight, but up to 120 km if flying at higher altitudes, indicating a high capacity for long-distance dispersal (Jeffries et al., 2013). Entomological News, 105(4):228-243, Thalji R, Stojanovic D, 2008. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Assessment of the competitive interactions between H. axyridis and C. septempunctata indicated that H. axyridis dominated and Yasuda et al. However, H. axyridis is a difficult target for classical biological control, firstly because the invasion of H. axyridis is, in itself, most probably the result of bad biological control practices and, secondly, because specific biological control agents may be difficult to find in the area of origin. (Ocorrência de coccinelídeos predadores em pomares de nectarina no município de Araucária, Paraná.). Journal of Insect Science, 3:1-6, Michie LJ, Masson A, Ware RL, Jiggins FM, 2011. H. axyridis is a member of the Coccinellidae family within the Coleoptera. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 23:497-499, Almeida LM de, Silva VB da, 2002. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Information on the global distribution of H. axyridis is far from comprehensive; however, there is a high probability that it occurs widely, mainly through intentional introductions coupled with natural dispersal. Harvesting methods may have an impact on the density of beetles in harvested grapes. Twenty-four hours prior to hatching the eggs turn grey-black. H. axyridis can now be found in all USA states except for Montana, Wyoming and parts of south-western USA; it was also intentionally introduced in Argentina in the late 1990s and became subsequently established in Argentina and Brazil (de Almeida and da Silva, 2002; Koch et al., 2006). The adults will typically live for a year. Intraguild predation is considered to be an important force in structuring aphidophagous ladybird guilds (Yasuda and Shinya, 1997; Yasuda and Ohnuma, 1999; Kajita et al., 2000), and therefore H. axyridis has the potential to dramatically disrupt native guilds globally. Zawadneak M A C, Schuber J M, Poltronieiri A S, Cardoso N A, 2008. Növényvédelem. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. EPPO Global database. Larval characters of Asian Species of the Genus Harmonia Mulsant. The Far-Eastern ladybird against the apple aphid. Multicoloured Asian lady beetle (Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773)) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for the first time in the fauna of Latvia. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitizing Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. PQR database. Such temperatures are similar to the range that H. axyridis will experience in temperate regions and so it is unlikely that climatic factors will prevent the spread of H. axyridis. Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation, in press, Majerus MEN, Roy HE, Mabbott P, 2006. First sighting of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Serbia. Therefore, if the predicted changes in global climate are realised, the climatic adaptability of H. axyridis may give it a competitive advantage over some of the more niche-specific ladybirds and other aphidophagous predators that are less climatically adaptable. Determination of supercooling temperature of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and its control over vegetable aphids in plastic covering. Population dynamics of three coccinellids in flue-cured tobacco and functional response of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on tobacco aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). The eggs are approximately 1.2 mm long and are oval shaped. De soort wordt tussen 5 en 7 millimeter lang. The beetles can be removed by shaking clusters, by hand or by using shaking tables, and by floating clusters in water or vacuum clusters (Kenis et al., 2008). http://www.vegedge.umn.edu/vegpest/Harmonia/Harmonia.htm, Koch RL, Hutchison WD, 2003. The adults are typically active for 30 to 120 days (He et al., 1994; El-Sebaey and El-Gantiry, 1999; Soares et al., 2001) and so can consume in excess of 5000 aphids, or equivalent of other insect prey, during their lives. Influence of temperature, relative humidity and photoperiodicity on the speed of development of Coccinella septempunctata L. Casopis Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Entomologicke, 55:121-141, Hodek I, 1973. Roy HE, Wajnberg E. (eds) 2008. H. axyridis is within the subfamily Coccinellinae. Laboratory study of cannibalism and interspecific predation in ladybirds. Occurrence of coccinelid predators in nectarine orchards in the municipality of Araucária, Paraná. Food Relationships. However, initial introductions of H. axyridis to USA agroecosystems failed to establish until 1988, when populations were found in Louisiana (Chapin and Brou, 1991). Elke dag worden duizenden nieuwe afbeeldingen van hoge kwaliteit toegevoegd. Relative toxicity of six insecticides to Cycloneda sanguinea and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). H. axyridis was favoured for the biological control of aphids because of its size, diverse dietary range, efficiency as a predator and wide niche colonization ability. Brown and Miller (1998) found that the abundance of native coccinellids in apple (Malus domestica) orchards in West Virginia decreased over a 13-year period following the establishment of both Coccinella septempunctata (an introduced species in the USA) and H. axyridis. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 40(5):116-122, Yang M-J, Zhang Y, Tao M, 2009. Tokyo, Japan: Academic Press, Sasaji H, 1977. in the UK) (M Kenis, CABI, personal communication, 2008). Not only do H. axyridis cause blemishing to the fruit, but they are hard to remove from clusters of grapes and so get crushed during harvest and crop processing. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 30(1):129-138, Nalepa CA, Kidd KA, Hopkins DI, 2000. 35 (4), 421-434. http://www.scielo.br/ne DOI:10.1590/S1519-566X2006000400001. The fourth instar is very similar in colouration to the third, but the scoli of the dorsal regions of the fourth and fifth abdominal segments are also orange (Sasaji, 1977). (Ocorrência de Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) no Estado de São Paulo.) Biological Control, 18(3):287-297, Michaud JP, 2001. Such rapid dispersal, coupled with the polyphagous nature of H. axyridis and low habitat or host plant specificity, will aid the spread of this beetle. Multicoloured Asian Lady beetle. H. axyridis seems compatible with many of the strategies employed in integrated pest management schemes (Koch, 2003). ; 33 pp, Dobzhansky T, 1933. Koch RL, 2003. IOBC/wprs Bulletin (Working Group "Benefits and Risks of exotic biological Control Agents"), 58:185-196, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2005. For example, the dark forms (form spectabilis and f. conspicua) are common in Asia (native range), but rare in the USA where the orange colour forms (f. succinea complex) dominate (Hodek and Honek, 1996). The beetles are 5-8mm long and 4-6.5mm wide. (Ocorrência de coccinelídeos predadores em pomares de nectarina no município de Araucária, Paraná.) The Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, as biological control agents: I. Predacious behavior and feeding ability. Please note that only the intentional introductions have been included in the Introductions table. British and Japanese coccinellid eggs. If normal prey becomes scarce, larval mortality can be very high, with in excess of 95% of larvae failing to survive to adulthood, and in such circumstances cannibalism can be essential for survival. It is now established in at least 15 countries, from Denmark in the north to Italy in the south, and from Great Britain in the west to Czech Republic and Hungary in the east. Phenology and blacklight trapping of the multicolored Asian Lady Beetle (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) in a Minnesota Agricultural Landscape. The head can be black, yellow or black with yellow markings. Taxonomy of Coccinellids, corrected version. Compendium record. Phytoparasitica, 25(3):183-191, Kenis M, Roy HE, Zindel R, Majerus MEN, 2008. 22 (6), 183-189. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 85(2):151-159; 49 ref, Luo HH, 1987. Escape from parasitism by the invasive alien ladybird, Harmonia axyridis. For example, only f. conspicua, f. spectabilis, and forms of the succinea complex have been recorded in the UK: f. axyridis, which is the predominant form over large parts of central Russia, and the rarer Asian forms have not been found (Majerus and Roy, 2006). The body is moderately convex, shortened, oval and approximately 4/5 wide as long. Natural Enemies of Insects, 9(2):84-87, Lynch LD, Hokkanen HMT, Babendreier D, Bigler F, Burgio G, Gao ZH, Kuske S, Loomans A, Menzler-Hokkanen I, Thomas MB, Tommasini G, Waage JK, Lenteren JCvan, Zeng QQ, 2001. The large aggregations of H. axyridis formed during the autumn and winter in buildings are regarded as a nuisance because of the propensity to swarm, and associated implications. Extreme variation in the prevalence of inherited male-killing microorganisms between three populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). In the UK, H. axyridis f. succinea is the dominant colour form (Majerus and Roy, 2006). Grez A, Zaviezo T, González G, Rothmann S, 2010. H. axyridis has been shown to reproduce successfully in a wide range of climates, whereas many species of coccinellid are more habitat and niche-specific. (2007) have described various sampling plans and assessed their usefulness. The survival of D. coccinellae in H. axyridis appears much lower than in other ladybirds. H. axyridis is a voracious predator and as such has the capacity to directly outcompete other aphid and coccid predators, in addition to acting as an intra-guild predator, thus posing a serious risk to native biodiversity. Social feeding in ladybird beetles: adaptive significance and mechanism. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); orange and red forms may be patterned with anything from 0 to 21 black spots (f. succinea complex), or may display a grid-like black pattern (f. axyridis). The arrival of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, in Britain. The presence of H. axyridis larvae within an aphid colony may reduce the rate that parasitoids oviposit (Takizawa et al., 2000) and so reduce their numbers. Discovery of an alien invasive, predatory insect in South Africa: the multicoloured Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 94(3):196-203. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJV-4MMP659-1&_user=10&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2007&_rdoc=7&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236888%232007%23999059996%23644313%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6888&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=13&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=44953fd4c98c5038e715df904516db26, NBII, 2005. In addition, several recommendations on cultivation practices in vineyards have been suggested to lower the impact of the ladybird in regions where H. axyridis causes recurrent problems to fruits (Kenis et al., 2008). Parrella G, Varricchio M L, Giorgini M, 2015. H. axyridis preys on a wide variety of tree-dwelling homopteran insects, such as aphids, psyllids, coccids, adelgids and other insects (Tedders and Schaefer, 1994; Hodek, 1996; Koch, 2003). 10:103 pp, Majerus MEN, 1994. The population fluctuations of some dominant species of ladybird beetles in Eastern Hebei Province. Roy HE, Wajnberg E. (eds) 2008. Recently concerns have been raised that both H. axyridis and C. septempunctata cause such problems to the wine industry in North America (Botezatu et al., 2013).Both H. axyridis and C. septempunctata contribute alkyl methoxypyrazines, and particularly isopropyl methoxypyrazine, to wine at concentrations that are considered to have a negative impact on wine quality (Botezatu et al., 2013). Life cycle of Harmonia axyridis (Col. Coccinellidae) in its area of introduction: south-eastern France. Repellents could also be employed such as camphor and menthol (Koch, 2003). Oecologia, 105(4):537-544, El-Sebaey IIA, El-Gantiry AM, 1999. Wang L Y, 1982. Vitis, 46(2):85-90. Wine Spectator, 15 May, 16, Elliott N, Kieckhefer R, Kauffman W, 1996. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. Sun XingQuan, Qiu HongLiu, Zhu KeLong, Gu BaoLong, Zhang XiuLong, Lu ZhiXing, Liu XiaoPing, 2002. Solano Y, Arcaya E, 2014. BioControl, 56(4):451-468. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853, Roy HE, Rhule E, Harding S, Handley LJL, Poland RL, Riddick EW, Steenberg T, 2011. Fauna Japonica, Coccinellidae (Insecta:Coleoptera). Harmonia axyridis: a successful biological control agent or an invasive threat? Where large aggregations occur in buildings, care should be taken to avoid disturbance resulting in excessive reflex bleeding, which can cause damage (staining) to soft furnishings. Escape from parasitism by the invasive alien ladybird, http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Ingels B, Clercq Pde, 2011. The invasion of H. axyridis causes concern for the populations of native ladybirds and other aphidophagous insects, which it may displace through intraguild predation and competition for resources. It is not yet known whether H. axyridis in other parts of the world harbour male-killers. Cannibalism and interspecific predation in two predatory ladybirds in relation to prey abundance in the field. This prolonged breeding confirms the continual breeding of the species if food is available and temperatures are not too low. The pronotum is creamish-yellow with black markings. Lady Beetle Larva, Pupa – Harmonia axyridis Family Coccinellidae – Lady Beetles.These beetles and their larvae are beneficial to agriculture and the backyard gardener, being voracious predators of … http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0082278, Kajita Y, Takano F, Yasuda H, Agarwala BK, 2000. 97-126. Hibernation of the lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis. From a survey of pupae collected in London, UK, during autumn (October and November, 2004) it was apparent that the majority were very heavily spotted, and subsequent breeding experiments using these beetles showed that their large, fused spots were not inherited, indicating an environmental cause (Majerus and Roy, 2006). The distribution of colour forms varies geographically and some forms also vary seasonally. Insect predator-prey dynamics: ladybird beetles and biological control., ix + 257 pp. The effect of temperature and other factors on the expression of elytral pattern in lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. In the regions of introduction, observations suggest that natural enemies are of little importance in the population dynamics of the ladybird. Als de volwassen kevers vervolgens weer eitjes leggen, krijg je een lokale vermenigvuldiging. Invasions by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Western Hemisphere: implications for South America. Environmental Entomology, 28(4):768-773; 25 ref, Wells ML, McPherson RM, Ruberson JR, Herzog GA, 2001. Environmental Entomology, 15(4):976-983, Menchetti M, Mori E, Ceccolini F, Paggetti E, Pizzocaro L, Cianferoni F, 2016. UK, South Africa, Brazil and many European countries), but the precise pathways are not known. Drie van de vele verschijningsvormen komen in Nederland veelvuldig voor: Sporadisch wordt ook melding gemaakt van de kleurvariant equicolor, waarbij het achterlijf zwart is en het voorlijf oranje-rood, mogelijk met zwarte stippen. The larvae are covered with scoli (branched setae). African Entomology. The tribes of this subfamily share a large number of truly synapomorphic characters (shared traits derived from a common ancestor). It is proposed that H. axyridis is likely to have a negative effect on other aphidophages in three ways: resource competition, intraguild predation and intra-specific competition. Geographical variation in ladybeetles. 64 (1), 50. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-current-issue DOI:10.1649/0010-065X-64.1.50, Knodel JJ, Hoebeke ER, 1996. Population field studies on the aphidophagous ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): resource tracking and population characteristics. Pupa: Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); pupae of H. axyridis are exposed and the exuvium of the fourth instar remains attached posteriorly to the pupa at the point of substrate attachment. Biodiversity loss following the introduction of exotic competitors: does intraguild predation explain the decline of native lady beetles? Lady beetles as potential predators of the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida citrus. Hodek and Honek (1996) proposed seven subfamilies: Coccidulinae, Scymninae, Chilocorinae, Ortaliinae, Coccinellinae, Epilachninae and Sticholotidinae. (2008a) have documented the introduction history and spread of H. axyridis in Europe. Onychium, No.12:137-139, Merkl O, 2008. Fan Y H, Yang S Y, 1983. Journal of Entomological Science, 36(2):177-187, Wu QL, 1986. Such dispersal may result in a considerable increase in their distribution. Roy et al. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. The decline of native coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the United States and Canada. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 71(2):135-136, Ejbich K, 2003. The mean duration of each immature stage is as follows: egg - 2.8 days, first instar - 2.5 days, second instar - 1.5 days, third instar - 1.8 days, fourth instar - 4.4 days, pupa - 4.5 days. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); pupae of H. axyridis are exposed and the exuvium of the fourth instar remains attached posteriorly to the pupa at the point of substrate attachment. Merkl O, 2008. These very traits now contribute to the invasive nature of this beetle. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain. Hicks B, Majka C G, Moores S P, 2010. Pp. The orange colouration is more pronounced in the third instar and covers the dorsal and dorsal-lateral areas of the first abdominal segment and the dorsal lateral regions of the second to fifth segments. H. axyridis can also directly impact on humans through its aggregation behaviour. Harmonia axyridis in Europe: spread and distribution of a non-native coccinellid. Biological Control, 6(2):232-237, Lamana ML, Miller JC, 1998. Although the transmission of this fungus to ladybirds is poorly understood, it is thought to infect ladybirds overwintering in leaf litter with close contact to the soil, and so is unlikely to affect H. axyridis significantly because these ladybirds favour elevated positions for overwintering. Baltic Journal of Coleopterology. Adalia bipunctata (twospotted lady beetle), Chilocorus stigma (twicestabbed lady beetle), Coccinella transversoguttata (lady beetle, transverse). https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Veelkleurig_Aziatisch_lieveheersbeestje&oldid=56491340, Wikipedia:Lokale afbeelding anders dan op Wikidata, Creative Commons Naamsvermelding/Gelijk delen, Een pdf van het onderzoek van C.C. Just 2 years after H. axyridis had initially established in Georgia, its spread was documented throughout the entire state and into the neighbouring states of Florida and South Carolina (Tedders and Schaefer, 1994). glasshouse production), Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Industrial / intensive livestock production systems, Average temp. The tarsi have four segments, but the third is very small and often hidden inside the deeply lobed second segment (Majerus and Kearns, 1989). Pupal exposure to low temperatures leads to slow imaginal development, resulting in forms of the succinea complex having more and larger spots, which are frequently fused, one into another (Tan and Li, 1934; Tan and Li, 1946). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(1):71-80, Nakata T, 1995. First record of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Venezuela. BioControl, 53(1):23-35. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853, Koch RL, Hutchison WD, 2003. It is interesting to note that the dark forms (such as f. spectabilis and f. conspicua) are common in parts of Asia (native range), but rare in the USA where the succinea complex of forms occurs (Hodek and Honek, 1996). Physiological changes related to diapause of the lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Molecular Ecology, 12(2):493-504, Foley IA, Ivie MA, Denke PM, 2009. Based on climate matching models, Poutsma et al. 63 (3), 351-352. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-current-issue DOI:10.1649/1175.1. With reference to the Habitat list, please note that in cultivated areas, this beetle is at the same time beneficial (in biocontrol) and harmful for indigenous ladybird species. Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 84(2):145-148. http://www.fealq.org.br/revista_agricultura.asp, Barševskis A, 2009. Forgotten natural enemies: interactions between coccinellids and insect-parasitic fungi. Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Coleoptera:Coccinellidae. 53 (1), 5-21. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853 DOI:10.1007/s10526-007-9132-y. Lamana and Miller (1998) demonstrated that H. axyridis is well-adapted to winter temperatures below freezing and to summer temperatures of 30°C. European Journal of Entomology, 98(3):287-293, Solano Y, Arcaya E, 2014. Interestingly, H. axyridis recognize their kin and are less likely to cannibalise a sibling than a non-related individual (Michaud, 2003). 13 (4), 61N-68N. Spread of Harlequin Ladybird (Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Hungary, and the first records from Romania and Ukraine. 34 (4), 483-494. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/een DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2008.01075.x. Scientia Agraria. Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba). Brown et al. Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS), Harmonia axyridis - Michigan State University, Harmonia axyridis - University of Florida, Ladybirds and Harmonia axyridis in Belgium (Dutch), Ladybirds and Harmonia axyridis in Belgium (French), Ladybirds and Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands (Dutch), Highly adaptable to different environments, Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food, Benefits from human association (i.e. Heriditas, 139:121-127, Grez A, Zaviezo T, González G, Rothmann S, 2010. BioControl, 53:103-125, Przewoz´ny M, Barozek T, Bunalski M, 2007. Harmonia axyridis: a successful biological control agent or an invasive threat?
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